INCORPORATING FLEXIBILITY IN UTILITY RESOURCE PLANNING (USA)


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The trend of increasingly variable net load is characteristic of all power systems with increasing penetration of wind and solar energy. As the amount of renewable energy increases, decreasing minimum net loads and increasing net load ramps require more frequent starts and stops, ramps and cycling, all of which impose costs and stress on the dispatchable generation fleet. Operational flexibility is needed to cope with varying net load. 

We compare the outcomes of traditional LDC and Chronological modeling for a utility with aggressive renewable penetration. The traditional approach underestimates annual operational costs by 7%. These errors result in an underestimation of future cost of electricity. Similar errors from the Chronological simulations were less than half that of the LDC approach.



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  Mikael Backman


   Regional director, North America
   Wärtsilä Energy Solutions