REDUCING WIND CURTAILMENT
IN CHINA WITH
SMART POWER GENERATION

 
China white paper_shutterstock_78842185

China is focusing strongly on the deployment of wind and solar energy to support global emission reduction targets. However, to fully optimise the output from wind and solar parks, a fundamental change is required to the country’s power system operation.

With a high proportion of China’s wind power located in the north and the north-east, and load centres situated in the south and the south-east, the country recognises the need to transmit clean power through the country. To bridge the geographical divide, the Chinese government has plans to invest at least CNY 2 trillion ($315 bn) in its power grid infrastructure. Relocating power is only part of the solution, whereas China’s power system must also be capable of balancing variable renewable energy and requires generators with ultra-fast start up times that can provide accurate load-following.

While penetration of wind and solar energy is expected to increase from 6% to 20% by 2030, load-following is currently unworkable in China’s nuclear and coal dominated generation mix. As a result, the only option is to curtail variable renewable energy, meaning that the power is not dispatched by grid companies to consumers and industry. This practice comes at great environmental and financial cost – during the first half of 2015, 15% of China’s wind power was curtailed, at a cost of CNY 8.9 bn ($1.4 bn). Without action, this statistic will increase as more variable renewable energy comes online.

China’s transition to a truly reliable and sustainable power system requires a new approach and incentive investment in flexible generation. In this white paper Wärtsilä provides an initial assessment of the potential benefits of including Smart Power Generation (SPG) within China’s generation fleet, in order to provide increased flexibility in the system as well as enable integrating larger shares of wind and solar energy.


中国高度重视风能和太阳能的部署以支持全球减排目标。但是,为了全面优化风能和太阳能
电站的发电出力,中国的电力系统运行需作出重大变革。中国的风能大多分布于北部和东北
部,而负荷中心却集中在南部和东南部,国家已经认识到将清洁能源向全国范围输送的必要
性。为了解决地理上的区域划分问题,中国政府已经计划在其电网基础设施方面至少投资
2 万亿元人民币(3150 亿美元)(路透社 2015 年)。

然而,电力的输送转移仅仅是解决方案的一部分。当电力输送到南部的负荷中心后,中国的
电力系统必须能够平衡易变性可再生能源。这意味着火力发电机组必须从传统的基荷运行转
换为提供灵活、间歇式发电出力,即仅在无法获得风能和太阳能时供电。要实现此目标,需
要发电机组具有超快的启动时间,可以针对易变性可再生能源提供准确的负荷跟。

尽管到 2030 年,风能和太阳能发电市场渗透率预计会从 6% 增长到 20%(彭博新能源财经
2015a),但在中国以核能和煤电为主导的多元化发电结构中,负荷跟踪目前难以运作。因此,
唯一的选择是弃用易变性可再生能源,这是一种以巨大的环境和经济成本为代价的做法。在
2015 年上半年,中国 15% 的风能被弃用,造成经济损失达 89 亿元(14 亿美元)(彭博新能
源财经 2015b)。如果不采取行动,随着更多易变性可再生能源的投产,这一统计数据将不断
增长。

中国已认识到这些成本负担的存在。但是,有利于煤电和核能的电价结构和燃料价格,意味
着中国仍在投资这种不灵活的发电容量。事实上,由于历史性的购电协议限定了每个发电厂
的运行小时数,这类发电机组在中国仍有盈利能力。

尽管如此,中国的最高权力机构,全国人民代表大会和国家能源局愿意做出改变。除了建议
电网扩建以将易变性可再生能源从北向南输送,国家还推出了以优先发展清洁能源为目标的
新政策,这意味着火电机组必须更加重视风能和太阳能的平衡。此外,这个全球最大的经济
体也渴望转向市场定价,这将激励易变性可再生能源发电机组和那些利于电网稳定的火电技
术,进而加速中国的低碳经济。

不过,虽然采取了这些积极措施,但中国要过渡到拥有一个真正可靠且可持续的电力系统,
仍需找到一种新的方法。在本白皮书中,瓦锡兰介绍了智能发电 (SPG):一种基于多台反应
快速的内燃机的灵活发电技术。由于内燃机固有的运行灵活性,SPG发电厂将能够精确跟踪
风能和太阳能的发电出力。在中国南部,SPG机组的安装将有助于高效吸纳从北部传输过来
的易变性风电。这一电力系统灵活性的增加将使我们能够整合更大份额的风能和太阳能入网。
在 CHP(热电联产)配置中,SPG发电厂还可以产生热量用于集中供热,有可能取代燃气轮
机联合循环 (CCGT) 或燃煤发电。本文对中国发电机组中纳入 SPG的潜在优势进行了初步评估,
旨在推动投资者、电力公司、电网公司和政策制定者之间的进一步讨。


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Xiaoping CHEN - Contact

  Xiao Ping Chen

   Vice President & Head of Energy Solutions, China
   
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M_Rajagopalan-Contact

  M Rajagopalan

   Market Development Director Asia & Middle East
   Wärtsilä Energy Solutions
   
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